Packages

  • package root
    Definition Classes
    root
  • package org
    Definition Classes
    root
  • package opalj

    OPAL is a Scala-based framework for the static analysis, manipulation and creation of Java bytecode.

    OPAL is a Scala-based framework for the static analysis, manipulation and creation of Java bytecode. OPAL is designed with performance, scalability and adaptability in mind.

    Its main components are:

    • a library (Common) which provides generally useful data-structures and algorithms for static analyses.
    • a framework for parsing Java bytecode (Bytecode Infrastructure) that can be used to create arbitrary representations.
    • a library to create a one-to-one in-memory representation of Java bytecode (Bytecode Disassembler).
    • a library to create a representation of Java bytecode that facilitates writing simple static analyses (Bytecode Representation - org.opalj.br).
    • a scalable, easily customizable framework for the abstract interpretation of Java bytecode (Abstract Interpretation Framework - org.opalj.ai).
    • a library to extract dependencies between code elements and to facilitate checking architecture definitions.
    • a library for the lightweight manipulation and creation of Java bytecode.

    General Design Decisions

    Thread Safety

    Unless explicitly noted, OPAL is thread safe. I.e., the classes defined by OPAL can be considered to be thread safe unless otherwise stated. (For example, it is possible to read and process class files concurrently without explicit synchronization on the client side.)

    No null Values

    Unless explicitly noted, OPAL does not null values I.e., fields that are accessible will never contain null values and methods will never return null. If a method accepts null as a value for a parameter or returns a null value it is always explicitly documented. In general, the behavior of methods that are passed null values is undefined unless explicitly documented.

    No Typecasts for Collections

    For efficiency reasons, OPAL sometimes uses mutable data-structures internally. After construction time, these data-structures are generally represented using their generic interfaces (e.g., scala.collection.{Set,Map}). However, a downcast (e.g., to add/remove elements) is always forbidden as it would effectively prevent thread-safety. Furthermore, the concrete data-structure is always considered an implementation detail and may change at any time.

    Assertions

    OPAL makes heavy use of Scala's Assertion Facility to facilitate writing correct code. Hence, for production builds (after thorough testing(!)) it is highly recommend to build OPAL again using -Xdisable-assertions.

    Definition Classes
    org
  • package ai

    Implementation of an abstract interpretation (ai) framework – also referred to as OPAL.

    Implementation of an abstract interpretation (ai) framework – also referred to as OPAL.

    Please note, that OPAL/the abstract interpreter just refers to the classes and traits defined in this package (ai). The classes and traits defined in the sub-packages (in particular in domain) are not considered to be part of the core of OPAL/the abstract interpreter.

    Definition Classes
    opalj
    Note

    This framework assumes that the analyzed bytecode is valid; i.e., the JVM's bytecode verifier would be able to verify the code. Furthermore, load-time errors (e.g., LinkageErrors) are – by default – completely ignored to facilitate the analysis of parts of a project. In general, if the presented bytecode is not valid, the result is undefined (i.e., OPAL may report meaningless results, crash or run indefinitely).

    See also

    org.opalj.ai.Domain - The core interface between the abstract interpretation framework and the abstract domain that is responsible for performing the abstract computations.

    org.opalj.ai.AI - Implements the abstract interpreter that processes a methods code and uses an analysis-specific domain to perform the abstract computations.

  • package domain

    This package contains definitions of common domains that can be used for the implementation of analyses.

    This package contains definitions of common domains that can be used for the implementation of analyses.

    Types of Domains

    In general, we distinguish two types of domains. First, domains that define a general interface (on top of the one defined by Domain), but do not directly provide an implementation. Hence, whenever you develop a new Domain you should consider implementing/using these domains to maximize reusability. Second, Domains that implement a specific interface (trait). In this case, we further distinguish between domains that provide a default implementation (per interface only one of these Domains can be used to create a final Domain) and those that can be stacked and basically refine the overall functionality.

    Examples

    • Domains That Define a General Interface
      • Origin defines two types which domains that provide information abou the origin of a value should consider to implement.
      • TheProject defines a standard mechanism how a domain can access the current project.
      • TheClassHierarchy defines a standard mechanism how to get the project's class hierarchy.
      • ...
    • Domains That Provide a Default Implementation
      • Origin defines the functionality to return a value's origin if the value supports that.
      • TheProject default implementation of the TheClassHierarchy trait that uses the project's class hierarchy.
      • DefaultHandlingOfMethodResults basically implements a Domain's methods related to return instructions an uncaught exceptions.
      • ...
    • Domains That Implement Stackable Functionality
      • RecordThrownExceptions records information about all uncaught exceptions by intercepting a Domain's respective methods. However, it does provide a default implementation. Hence, a typical pattern is:
    class MyDomain extends Domain with ...
        with DefaultHandlingOfMethodResults with RecordThrownExceptions

    Thread Safety

    Unless explicitly documented, a domain is never thread-safe. The general programming model is to use one Domain object per code block/method and therefore, thread-safety is not required for Domains that are used for the evaluation of methods. However domains that are used to adapt/transfer values should be thread safe (see ValuesCoordinatingDomain for further details).

    Definition Classes
    ai
  • package l1

    Commonly useful methods.

    Commonly useful methods.

    Definition Classes
    domain
  • ArrayValues
  • ClassValues
  • ConcretePrimitiveValuesConversions
  • ConstraintsBetweenIntegerValues
  • DefaultArrayValuesBinding
  • DefaultClassValuesBinding
  • DefaultDomain
  • DefaultDomainWithCFG
  • DefaultDomainWithCFGAndDefUse
  • DefaultIntegerRangeValues
  • DefaultIntegerSetValues
  • DefaultIntegerValues
  • DefaultIntervalValuesDomain
  • DefaultJavaObjectToDomainValueConversion
  • DefaultLongSetValues
  • DefaultLongValues
  • DefaultReferenceValuesBinding
  • DefaultReferenceValuesDomain
  • DefaultSetValuesDomain
  • DefaultSingletonValuesDomain
  • DefaultStringValuesBinding
  • IfNullParameterAnalysis
  • IntegerRangeValues
  • IntegerSetValues
  • IntegerValues
  • LongSetValues
  • LongSetValuesShiftOperators
  • LongValues
  • LongValuesShiftOperators
  • MaxArrayLengthRefinement
  • MethodReturnValuesAnalysis
  • NullPropertyRefinement
  • OwnershipAnalysis
  • RecordAllThrownExceptions
  • ReferenceValues
  • RefinedReturnType
  • ReflectiveInvoker
  • SimpleDefUseAnalysis
  • StringBuilderValues
  • StringValues
t

org.opalj.ai.domain.l1

DefaultReferenceValuesBinding

trait DefaultReferenceValuesBinding extends ReferenceValues with DefaultExceptionsFactory

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Inherited
  1. DefaultReferenceValuesBinding
  2. DefaultExceptionsFactory
  3. ReferenceValues
  4. Origin
  5. DefaultTypeLevelReferenceValues
  6. TypeLevelReferenceValues
  7. AsJavaObject
  8. GeneralizedArrayHandling
  9. ReferenceValuesDomain
  10. ReferenceValuesFactory
  11. ExceptionsFactory
  12. DefaultDomainValueBinding
  13. ValuesDomain
  14. AnyRef
  15. Any
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Visibility
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Type Members

  1. class IllegalValue extends Value

    Represents a value that has no well defined state/type.

    Represents a value that has no well defined state/type. Such values are the result of a join of two incompatible values and are generally only found in registers (in the locals) and then identify a value that is dead.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
    See also

    org.opalj.ai.Domain.Value for further details.

  2. trait RETValue extends Value
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  3. class ReturnAddressValue extends RETValue

    Stores a single return address (i.e., a program counter/index into the code array).

    Stores a single return address (i.e., a program counter/index into the code array).

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
    Note

    Though the framework completely handles all aspects related to return address values, it is nevertheless necessary that this class inherits from Value as return addresses are stored on the stack/in the registers. However, if the Value trait should be refined, all additional methods may – from the point-of-view of OPAL-AI - just throw an OperationNotSupportedException as these additional methods will never be called by OPAL-AI.

  4. class ReturnAddressValues extends RETValue

    A collection of (not furhter stored) return address values.

    A collection of (not furhter stored) return address values. Primarily used when we join the executions of subroutines.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  5. trait TypedValue[+T <: Type] extends Value with KnownType
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  6. trait Value extends AnyRef

    Abstracts over a concrete operand stack value or a value stored in one of the local variables/registers.

    Abstracts over a concrete operand stack value or a value stored in one of the local variables/registers.

    Use Of Value/Dependencies On Value

    In general, subclasses and users of a Domain should not have/declare a direct dependency on Value. Instead they should use DomainValue as otherwise extensibility of a Domain may be hampered or even be impossible. The only exceptions are, of course, classes that directly inherit from this class.

    Refining Value

    If you directly extend/refine this trait (i.e., in a subclass of the Domain trait you write something like trait Value extends super.Value), make sure that you also extend all classes/traits that inherit from this type (this may require a deep mixin composition and that you refine the type DomainType accordingly). However, OPAL was designed such that extending this class should – in general – not be necessary. It may also be easier to encode the desired semantics – as far as possible – as part of the domain.

    Implementing Value

    Standard inheritance from this trait is always supported and is the primary mechanism to model an abstract domain's lattice w.r.t. some special type of value. In general, the implementation should try to avoid creating new instances of values unless strictly required to model the domain's semantics. This will greatly improve the overall performance as this framework heavily uses reference-based equality checks to speed up the evaluation.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
    Note

    OPAL does not rely on any special equality semantics w.r.t. values and never directly or indirectly calls a Value's equals or eq method. Hence, a domain can encode equality such that it best fits its need. However, some of the provided domains rely on the following semantics for equals: Two domain values have to be equal (==) iff they represent the same information. This includes additional information, such as, the value of the origin. E.g., a value (AnIntegerValue) that represents an arbitrary Integer value has to return true if the domain value with which it is compared also represents an arbitrary Integer value (AnIntegerValue). However, it may still be necessary to use multiple objects to represent an arbitrary integer value if, e.g., constraints should be attached to specific values. For example, after a comparison of an integer value with a predefined value (e.g., AnIntegerValue < 4) it is possible to constrain the respective value on the subsequent paths (< 4 on one path and >= 4 on the other path). To make that possible, it is however necessary to distinguish the AnIntegervalue from some other AnIntegerValue to avoid constraining unrelated values.

    public void foo(int a,int b) {
        if(a < 4) {
            z = a - 2 // here a is constrained (< 4), b and z are unconstrained
        }
        else {
            z = a + 2 // here a is constrained (>= 4), b and z are unconstrained
        }
    }

    In general, equals is only defined for values belonging to the same domain. If values need to be compared across domains, they need to be adapted to a target domain first.

  7. trait MultipleOriginsValue extends (Origin.this)#ValueWithOriginInformation

    Marker trait which should be mixed in by DomainValue classes that capture information about all (multiple) origins of a value.

    Marker trait which should be mixed in by DomainValue classes that capture information about all (multiple) origins of a value.

    Definition Classes
    Origin
  8. trait SingleOriginValue extends (Origin.this)#ValueWithOriginInformation

    Should be mixed in by DomainValues that have a single origin.

    Should be mixed in by DomainValues that have a single origin.

    Definition Classes
    Origin
  9. trait ValueWithOriginInformation extends AnyRef

    Common supertrait of all domain values which provide comprehensive origin information.

    Common supertrait of all domain values which provide comprehensive origin information.

    Definition Classes
    Origin
  10. trait ArrayAbstraction extends AnyRef
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  11. trait SReferenceValue[T <: ReferenceType] extends (TypeLevelReferenceValues.this)#ReferenceValue

    A reference value with a single (upper) type (bound).

    A reference value with a single (upper) type (bound).

    Attributes
    protected[this]
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  12. type AReferenceValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReferenceValue
  13. type ArrayLoadResult = Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]

    Computation that returns the value stored in an array at a given index or an exception.

    Computation that returns the value stored in an array at a given index or an exception. The exceptions that may be thrown are: NullPointerException and ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  14. type ArrayStoreResult = Computation[Nothing, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]

    Computation that succeeds (updates the value stored in the array at the given index) or that throws an exception.

    Computation that succeeds (updates the value stored in the array at the given index) or that throws an exception. The exceptions that may be thrown are: NullPointerException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException and ArrayStoreException.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  15. type DomainArrayValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayValue
  16. final type DomainIllegalValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#IllegalValue

    Abstracts over the concrete type of IllegalValue.

    Abstracts over the concrete type of IllegalValue.

    This type needs to be refined whenever the class IllegalValue is refined or the type DomainValue is refined.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  17. type DomainMultipleReferenceValues = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#MultipleReferenceValues
  18. type DomainNullValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#NullValue
  19. type DomainObjectValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ObjectValue
  20. type DomainReferenceValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReferenceValue
  21. final type DomainReturnAddressValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReturnAddressValue

    Abstracts over the concrete type of ReturnAddressValue.

    Abstracts over the concrete type of ReturnAddressValue. Needs to be fixed by some sub-trait/sub-class. In the simplest case (i.e., when neither the Value trait nor the ReturnAddressValue trait was refined) it is sufficient to write:

    type DomainReturnAddressValue = ReturnAddressValue
    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  22. final type DomainReturnAddressValues = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReturnAddressValues
  23. type DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#SingleOriginReferenceValue
  24. final type DomainTypedValue[+T <: Type] = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#TypedValue[T]
  25. final type DomainValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Value

    Abstracts over the concrete type of Value.

    Abstracts over the concrete type of Value. Needs to be refined by traits that inherit from Domain and which extend Domain's Value trait.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  26. type ExceptionValue = (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainReferenceValue

    A simple type alias of the type DomainValue; used to facilitate comprehension.

    A simple type alias of the type DomainValue; used to facilitate comprehension.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  27. type ExceptionValues = Iterable[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]

    A type alias for Iterables of ExceptionValues; used to facilitate comprehension.

    A type alias for Iterables of ExceptionValues; used to facilitate comprehension.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  28. type Locals = collection.mutable.Locals[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue]

    An instruction's current register values/locals are represented using an array.

    An instruction's current register values/locals are represented using an array.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  29. type LocalsArray = Array[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals]
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  30. type Operands = Chain[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue]

    An instruction's operands are represented using a list where the first element of the list represents the top level operand stack value.

    An instruction's operands are represented using a list where the first element of the list represents the top level operand stack value.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  31. type OperandsArray = Array[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands]
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  32. type RefId = Int

    Two domain values that have the same refid are guaranteed to refer to the same object at runtime (must-alias).

    Two domain values that have the same refid are guaranteed to refer to the same object at runtime (must-alias).

    The refid enables us to distinguish two values created/returned by the same instruction - two values with the same origin - but at a different point in time. Such values may or may not be different; i.e., those values may or may not refer to the same object on the heap/stack.

    RefIds are required to determine changes in the memory layout. I.e., to determine if two values created by the same instruction are aliases or "just" maybe aliases. This information is particularly relevant if two values - stored in registers - are no longer guaranteed to be aliases!

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  33. type Refinements = IdentityHashMap[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue]

    A map that contains the refined values (the map's values) of some old values (the map's keys).

    A map that contains the refined values (the map's values) of some old values (the map's keys).

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  34. class ArrayValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#ArrayValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#NonNullSingleOriginSReferenceValue
    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  35. class MObjectValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#MObjectValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#ObjectValue
    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  36. class MultipleReferenceValues extends (ReferenceValues.this)#ReferenceValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#MultipleOriginsValue

    A MultipleReferenceValues tracks multiple reference values (of type NullValue, ArrayValue, SObjectValue and MObjectValue) that have different origins.

    A MultipleReferenceValues tracks multiple reference values (of type NullValue, ArrayValue, SObjectValue and MObjectValue) that have different origins. I.e., per value origin one domain value is used to abstract over the properties of that respective value.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  37. trait NonNullSingleOriginReferenceValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#SingleOriginReferenceValue
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  38. trait NonNullSingleOriginSReferenceValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#NonNullSingleOriginReferenceValue
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  39. class NullValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#NullValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#SingleOriginReferenceValue
    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  40. trait ObjectValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#ObjectValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#NonNullSingleOriginReferenceValue
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  41. trait ReferenceValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#ReferenceValue

    Representation of some reference value; this includes Object, Array and Null values.

    Representation of some reference value; this includes Object, Array and Null values.

    This trait defines the additional methods needed for the refinement of the new properties.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  42. class SObjectValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#SObjectValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#ObjectValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#NonNullSingleOriginSReferenceValue

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  43. trait SingleOriginReferenceValue extends (ReferenceValues.this)#ReferenceValue with (ReferenceValues.this)#SingleOriginValue with UID

    Represents all DomainReferenceValues that represent a reference value where – in the current analysis context – the value has a single origin.

    Represents all DomainReferenceValues that represent a reference value where – in the current analysis context – the value has a single origin.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
    Note

    To make it possible to store SingleOriginReferenceValues in UIDSets - which in particular provide fast filter and tail methods compared to the standard sets - the UID trait is implemented.

Abstract Value Members

  1. abstract def isSubtypeOf(subtype: ReferenceType, supertype: ReferenceType): Answer

    Tries to determine if the type referred to as subtype is a subtype of the specified reference type supertype.

    Tries to determine if the type referred to as subtype is a subtype of the specified reference type supertype. If the class hierarchy is not complete the answer may be Unknown.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain

Concrete Value Members

  1. implicit object SingleOriginValueOrdering extends Ordering[(Origin.this)#SingleOriginValue]
    Definition Classes
    Origin
  2. object ArrayValue

    Enables matching of DomainValues that are array values.

    Enables matching of DomainValues that are array values.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultTypeLevelReferenceValues
  3. object MObjectValue
  4. object SObjectValue
  5. object IsNull
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  6. object IsPrecise
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  7. object UpperTypeBound
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  8. final def !=(arg0: Any): Boolean
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  9. final def ##(): Int
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  10. final def ==(arg0: Any): Boolean
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  11. final val AReferenceValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue]
  12. final def ArithmeticException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArithmeticException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArithmeticException and that has the given origin. If the ArithmeticException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  13. final def ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException and that has the given origin. If the ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  14. final def ArrayStoreException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArrayStoreException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ArrayStoreException and that has the given origin. If the ArrayStoreException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  15. def ArrayValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: ArrayType, t: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingReferenceValues
  16. def ArrayValue(pc: PC, arrayType: ArrayType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue

    Creates a new DomainValue that represents an array value with unknown values and where the specified type may also just be an upper type bound (unless the component type is a primitive type or an array of primitives.)

    Creates a new DomainValue that represents an array value with unknown values and where the specified type may also just be an upper type bound (unless the component type is a primitive type or an array of primitives.)

    Typical Usage

    This factory method is (typically) used to create a domain value that represents an array if we know nothing specific about the array. E.g., if you want to analyze a method that takes an array as a parameter.

    Summary

    The properties of the value are:

    • Type: Upper Bound (unless the elementType is a base type)
    • Null: Unknown
    • Size: Unknown
    • Content: Unknown
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValues
    Note

    Java's arrays are co-variant. I.e., Object[] a = new Serializable[100]; is valid.

  17. final def ClassCastException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ClassCastException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a ClassCastException and that has the given origin. If the ClassCastException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  18. final def ClassNotFoundException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
  19. def ClassValue(pc: PC, t: Type): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents a runtime value of type "Class<T>" and that was created by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents a runtime value of type "Class<T>" and that was created by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    This function is called by OPAL when a class constant (LDC(_W) instruction) is put on the stack.

    The domain may ignore the information about the value and the origin (vo).

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Yes and the type represented by the class is the given type.
    • Type: java.lang.Class<t:Type>
    • Null: No
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  20. final val DomainArrayValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue]
  21. final val DomainMultipleReferenceValues: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainMultipleReferenceValues]
  22. final val DomainNullValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainNullValue]
  23. final val DomainObjectValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue]
  24. final val DomainReferenceValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainReferenceValue]

    The class tag can be used to create type safe arrays or to extract the concrete type of the domain value.

    The class tag can be used to create type safe arrays or to extract the concrete type of the domain value.

    val DomainReferenceValue(v) = value // of type "DomainValue"
    // v is now of the type DomainReferenceValue
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingValuesDomain
  25. final val DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue]
  26. final val DomainValue: ClassTag[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue]

    The class tag for the type DomainValue.

    The class tag for the type DomainValue.

    Required to generate instances of arrays in which values of type DomainValue can be stored in a type-safe manner.

    Initialization

    In the sub-trait or class that fixes the type of DomainValue it is necessary to implement this abstract val using:

    val DomainValueTag : ClassTag[DomainValue] = implicitly

    (As of Scala 2.10 it is necessary that you do not use implicit in the subclass - it will compile, but fail at runtime.)

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  27. final def IllegalMonitorStateException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent an IllegalMonitorStateException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent an IllegalMonitorStateException and that has the given origin. If the IllegalMonitorStateException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you should use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  28. def InitializedArrayValue(pc: PC, arrayType: ArrayType, counts: Chain[Int]): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents an array that was successfully created and which has the given type.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents an array that was successfully created and which has the given type.

    The domain may ignore the information about the origin (pc) and the precise size of each dimension.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Type: Precise
    • Null: No
    • Content: Unknown
    counts

    The size of each dimension if available. counts may not be empty but may not contain information about all dimensions; the following condition always has to hold: counts.length <= arrayType.dimensions.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  29. def InitializedObjectValue(pc: PC, objectType: ObjectType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents an initialized reference value of the given type and that was created (explicitly or implicitly) by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents an initialized reference value of the given type and that was created (explicitly or implicitly) by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    General Remarks

    The given type usually identifies a class type (not an interface type) that is not abstract, but in some cases (e.g. consider java.awt.Toolkit()) it may be useful/meaningful to relax this requirement and to state that the class precisely represents the runtime type – even so the class is abstract. However, such decisions need to be made by the domain.

    This method is used by the OPAL framework to create reference values that are normally internally created by the JVM (in particular exceptions such as NullPointExeception and ClassCastException). However, it can generally be used to create initialized objects/arrays.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Yes
    • Type: precise (i.e., this type is not an upper bound, the type correctly models the runtime type.)
    • Null: No (This value is not null.)
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  30. final val MetaInformationUpdateIllegalValue: MetaInformationUpdate[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainIllegalValue]

    The result of the merge of two incompatible values has to be reported as a MetaInformationUpdate[DomainIllegalValue].

    The result of the merge of two incompatible values has to be reported as a MetaInformationUpdate[DomainIllegalValue].

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  31. def MethodHandle(origin: ValueOrigin, handle: MethodHandle): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainReferenceValue

    Called by the AI framework for each load constant method handle (org.opalj.br.instructions.LoadMethodHandle) instruction to get a representation of/a DomainValue that represents the handle.

    Called by the AI framework for each load constant method handle (org.opalj.br.instructions.LoadMethodHandle) instruction to get a representation of/a DomainValue that represents the handle.

    handle

    A valid method handle.

    returns

    An InitializedObjectValue(ObjectType.MethodHandle). Hence, this method needs to be overridden if resolution of MethodHandle based method calls should be performed.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesFactory
  32. def MethodType(origin: ValueOrigin, descriptor: MethodDescriptor): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainReferenceValue

    Called by the framework for each load constant method type (org.opalj.br.instructions.LoadMethodType) instruction to get a domain-specific representation of the method descriptor as a MethodType.

    Called by the framework for each load constant method type (org.opalj.br.instructions.LoadMethodType) instruction to get a domain-specific representation of the method descriptor as a MethodType.

    descriptor

    A valid method descriptor.

    returns

    An InitializedObjectValue(ObjectType.MethodType). Hence, this method needs to be overridden if resolution of MethodType based method calls should be performed.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesFactory
  33. def MultipleReferenceValues(values: UIDSet[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue], isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: UIDSet[_ <: ReferenceType], refId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainMultipleReferenceValues
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingReferenceValues
  34. def MultipleReferenceValues(values: UIDSet[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue]): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainMultipleReferenceValues
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingReferenceValues
  35. final def NegativeArraySizeException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a NegativeArraySizeException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a NegativeArraySizeException and that has the given origin. If the NegativeArraySizeException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  36. def NewArray(pc: PC, counts: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, arrayType: ArrayType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue

    Factory method to create a new domain value that represents a newly created array (non-null) with the size determined by count that is empty.

    Factory method to create a new domain value that represents a newly created array (non-null) with the size determined by count that is empty.

    Typical Usage

    This factory method is (implicitly) used, e.g., by OPAL when a multianewarray instruction is found.

    Summary

    The properties of the value are:

    • Type: Precise
    • Null: No
    • Size: Depending on the values in counts
    • Content: Empty (i.e., default values w.r.t. to the array's component type)
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValues
  37. def NewArray(pc: PC, count: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayType: ArrayType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue

    Factory method to create a new domain value that represents a newly created array (non-null) with the size determined by count that is empty.

    Factory method to create a new domain value that represents a newly created array (non-null) with the size determined by count that is empty.

    Typical Usage

    This factory method is (implicitly) used, e.g., by OPAL when a newarray instruction is found.

    Summary

    The properties of the value are:

    • Type: Precise
    • Null: No
    • Size: Count
    • Content: Empty (i.e., default values w.r.t. to the array's component type)
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValues
  38. def NewObject(pc: PC, objectType: ObjectType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Creates a new DomainValue that represents a new, uninitialized instance of an object of the given type.

    Creates a new DomainValue that represents a new, uninitialized instance of an object of the given type. The object was created by the (NEW) instruction with the specified program counter.

    OPAL calls this method when it evaluates newobject instructions. If the bytecode is valid a call of one of the object's constructors will subsequently initialize the object.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: no (only the memory is allocated for the object)
    • Type: precise (i.e., this type is not an upper bound, the type correctly models the runtime type.)
    • Null: No (This value is not null.)
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
    Note

    Instances of arrays are created by the newarray and multianewarray instructions and in both cases an exception may be thrown (e.g., NegativeArraySizeException).

  39. def NonNullObjectValue(pc: PC, objectType: ObjectType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Represents a non-null reference value with the given type as an upper type bound.

    Represents a non-null reference value with the given type as an upper type bound.

    The domain may ignore the information about the value and the origin (vo).

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Yes (the constructor was called)
    • Type: Upper Bound
    • Null: No (This value is not null.)
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  40. final def NullPointerException(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a NullPointerException and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a NullPointerException and that has the given origin. If the NullPointerException was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you should use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  41. def NullValue(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainNullValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents value null and and that was created (explicitly or implicitly) by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents value null and and that was created (explicitly or implicitly) by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    The domain may ignore the information about the value and the origin (pc).

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: N/A
    • Type: Null
    • Null: Yes
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  42. def ObjectValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, upperTypeBound: UIDSet[ObjectType], refId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingReferenceValues
  43. def ObjectValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: ObjectType, refId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#SObjectValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    DefaultReferenceValuesBindingReferenceValues
  44. def ObjectValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: ObjectType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  45. def ObjectValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, upperTypeBound: UIDSet[ObjectType]): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  46. def ObjectValue(pc: PC, upperTypeBound: UIDSet[ObjectType]): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either an class-/interface value that has the given types as an upper bound or the value null.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either an class-/interface value that has the given types as an upper bound or the value null. However, the information whether the value is null or not is not available. Furthermore, the type may also just be an upper bound and it is not known if the value is properly initialized.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Unknown (i.e., it is not guaranteed that the constructor was called.)
    • Type: Upper Bound
    • Null: Unknown
    • Content: Unknown
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValues
  47. def ObjectValue(pc: PC, objectType: ObjectType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either an class-/interface value that has the given type or the value null.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either an class-/interface value that has the given type or the value null. However, the information whether the value is null or not is not available. Furthermore, the type may also just be an upper bound and it is not known if the value is properly initialized.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Unknown
    • Type: Upper Bound
    • Null: Unknown
    • Content: Unknown
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValues
  48. final def RefIdUpdate[T](value: T): MetaInformationUpdate[T]

    Creates an update object that characterizes a reference id update.

    Creates an update object that characterizes a reference id update.

    Basically, just a wrapper for a MetaInformationUpdate; the purpose is to better communicate the underlying purpose.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
    Annotations
    @inline()
  49. final def ReferenceValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, upperTypeBound: UIDSet[_ <: ReferenceType], refId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  50. final def ReferenceValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: ReferenceType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  51. def ReferenceValue(origin: ValueOrigin, isNull: Answer, isPrecise: Boolean, theUpperTypeBound: ReferenceType, refId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue
    Attributes
    protected[org.opalj.ai.domain]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  52. def ReferenceValue(pc: PC, upperTypeBound: ReferenceType): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either a reference value that has the given type and is initialized or the value null.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents either a reference value that has the given type and is initialized or the value null. However, the information whether the value is null or not is not available. Furthermore, the type may also just be an upper bound.

    The domain may ignore the information about the value and the origin, but it has to remain possible for the domain to identify the component type of an array.

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Yes (if non-null the constructor was called/the array was initialized)
    • Type: Upper Bound
    • Null: Unknown
    • Content: Unknown
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  53. final def ReturnAddressValue(address: Int): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReturnAddressValue

    Factory method to create an instance of a ReturnAddressValue.

    Factory method to create an instance of a ReturnAddressValue.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  54. def StringValue(pc: PC, value: String): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents the given string value and that was created by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    Factory method to create a DomainValue that represents the given string value and that was created by the instruction with the specified program counter.

    This function is called by OPAL-AI when a string constant (LDC(_W) instruction) is put on the stack.

    The domain may ignore the information about the value and the origin (vo).

    Summary

    The properties of the domain value are:

    • Initialized: Yes and the String's value is the given value. The string may be empty (""), but it is never null.
    • Type: java.lang.String
    • Null: No
    value

    A non-null string. (The string may be empty, though.)

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesFactory
  55. final def StructuralUpdateIllegalValue: StructuralUpdate[Nothing]

    The result of merging two values should never be reported as a StructuralUpdate if the computed value is an IllegalValue.

    The result of merging two values should never be reported as a StructuralUpdate if the computed value is an IllegalValue. The JVM semantics guarantee that the value will not be used and, hence, continuing the interpretation is meaningless.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
    Note

    This method is solely defined for documentation purposes and to catch implementation errors early on.

  56. final val TheIllegalValue: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainIllegalValue

    The singleton instance of the IllegalValue.

    The singleton instance of the IllegalValue.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  57. final val TheReturnAddressValues: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ReturnAddressValues

    The singleton instance of ReturnAddressValues

    The singleton instance of ReturnAddressValues

    Definition Classes
    DefaultDomainValueBindingValuesDomain
  58. final def Throwable(origin: ValueOrigin): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue

    Creates a non-null object that represent a Throwable object and that has the given origin.

    Creates a non-null object that represent a Throwable object and that has the given origin. If the Throwable was created by the VM while evaluating an instruction with the program counter pc you should use the method ValueOriginForVMLevelValue to translate that pc to the appropriate ValueOrigin.

    Definition Classes
    DefaultExceptionsFactoryExceptionsFactory
  59. final def VMArithmeticException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  60. final def VMArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  61. final def VMArrayStoreException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  62. final def VMClassCastException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  63. final def VMClassNotFoundException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  64. final def VMIllegalMonitorStateException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  65. final def VMNegativeArraySizeException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  66. final def VMNullPointerException(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  67. final def VMThrowable(pc: PC): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue
    Definition Classes
    ExceptionsFactory
  68. def aaload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  69. def aastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  70. def arraylength(pc: PC, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]

    Returns the array's length or throws a NullPointerException if the given reference is null.

    Returns the array's length or throws a NullPointerException if the given reference is null.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
    Note

    It is in general not necessary to override this method. If you need some special handling refine the trait ArrayValue.

  71. def arrayload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult

    Loads the value stored in the array at the given index or throws an exception (NullPointerException or IndexOutOfBoundsException).

    Loads the value stored in the array at the given index or throws an exception (NullPointerException or IndexOutOfBoundsException).

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesGeneralizedArrayHandling
    Note

    It is in general not necessary to override this method. If you need some special handling refine the load method defined by the trait ArrayValue.

  72. def arraystore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult

    Stores the given value in the array at the given index or throws an exception (NullPointerException, ArrayStoreException or IndexOutOfBoundsException).

    Stores the given value in the array at the given index or throws an exception (NullPointerException, ArrayStoreException or IndexOutOfBoundsException).

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesGeneralizedArrayHandling
    Note

    It is in general not necessary to override this method. If you need some special handling refine the store method defined by the trait ArrayValue.

  73. def asArrayAbstraction(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayAbstraction
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  74. final def asInstanceOf[T0]: T0
    Definition Classes
    Any
  75. def asObjectValue(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainObjectValue
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  76. def asReferenceValue(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue

    Returns the given value as a DomainReferenceValue.

    Returns the given value as a DomainReferenceValue. Basically just performs a type cast and is intended to be used to communicate that the value has to be a reference value (if the underlying byte code is valid.)

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  77. def baload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  78. def bastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  79. def caload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  80. def castore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  81. def clone(): AnyRef
    Attributes
    protected[java.lang]
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @native() @throws( ... )
  82. def daload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  83. def dastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  84. final def eq(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  85. def equals(arg0: Any): Boolean
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  86. def faload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  87. def fastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  88. def finalize(): Unit
    Attributes
    protected[java.lang]
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( classOf[java.lang.Throwable] )
  89. def foreachOrigin(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, f: (ValueOrigin) ⇒ Unit): Unit
    Definition Classes
    Origin
  90. final def getClass(): Class[_]
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
    Annotations
    @native()
  91. def hashCode(): Int
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
    Annotations
    @native()
  92. def iaload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  93. def iastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  94. final def isInstanceOf[T0]: Boolean
    Definition Classes
    Any
  95. def isNull(values: Iterable[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue]): Answer

    Determines the common null-ness property of the given reference values.

    Determines the common null-ness property of the given reference values.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  96. def isPrecise(values: Iterable[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#AReferenceValue]): Boolean

    Determines if the runtime object type referred to by the given values is always the same.

    Determines if the runtime object type referred to by the given values is always the same. I.e., it determines if all values are precise and have the same upperTypeBound. Null values are ignored when determining the precision.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  97. final def isValueSubtypeOf(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, supertype: ReferenceType): Answer

    Tries to determine – under the assumption that the given value is not null – if the runtime type of the given reference value could be a subtype of the specified reference type supertype.

    Tries to determine – under the assumption that the given value is not null – if the runtime type of the given reference value could be a subtype of the specified reference type supertype. I.e., if the type of the value is not precisely known, then all subtypes of the value's type are also taken into consideration when analyzing the subtype relation and only if we can guarantee that none is a subtype of the given supertype the answer will be No.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
    Note

    The returned value is only meaningful if value does not represent the runtime value null.

  98. final def justThrows(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue): ThrowsException[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesFactory
  99. def laload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  100. def lastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  101. def mergeDEComputations(pc: PC, c1: Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue], c2: Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]): Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]

    Merges two computations that both resulted in at most one DomainValue or at most one ExceptionValue.

    Merges two computations that both resulted in at most one DomainValue or at most one ExceptionValue.

    If values are merged the merged value will use the specified pc.

    Attributes
    protected[this]
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  102. def mergeDEsComputations(pc: PC, c1: Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues], c2: Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]): Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]

    Merges two computations that both return some DomainValue and some ExceptionValues.

    Merges two computations that both return some DomainValue and some ExceptionValues. If values are merged the merged value will use the specified pc.

    Attributes
    protected[this]
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  103. def mergeDomainValues(pc: PC, v1: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, v2: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue

    Merges the given domain value v1 with the domain value v2 and returns the merged value which is v1 if v1 is an abstraction of v2, v2 if v2 is an abstraction of v1 or some other value if a new value is computed that abstracts over both values.

    Merges the given domain value v1 with the domain value v2 and returns the merged value which is v1 if v1 is an abstraction of v2, v2 if v2 is an abstraction of v1 or some other value if a new value is computed that abstracts over both values.

    This operation is commutative.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  104. def mergeEsComputations(pc: PC, c1: Computation[Nothing, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues], c2: Computation[Nothing, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]): Computation[Nothing, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues]

    Merges two computations that both resulted in at most one ExceptionValue each.

    Merges two computations that both resulted in at most one ExceptionValue each.

    If values are merged the merged value will use the specified pc.

    Attributes
    protected[this]
    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  105. def mergeMultipleExceptionValues(pc: PC, v1s: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues, v2s: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValues

    Merges those exceptions that have the same upper type bound.

    Merges those exceptions that have the same upper type bound. This ensures that per upper type bound only one ValuesDomain.DomainValue (which may be a MultipleReferenceValues) is used. For those values that are merged, the given pc is used.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValues
  106. def multianewarray(pc: PC, counts: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, arrayType: ArrayType): Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainArrayValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]

    Creates a multi-dimensional array.

    Creates a multi-dimensional array.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
    Note

    It is generally not necessary to override this method as it handles all cases in a generic manner.

    ,

    The componentType may be (again) an array type.

  107. final def ne(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  108. def newarray(pc: PC, count: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, componentType: FieldType): Computation[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]

    Creates a new array.

    Creates a new array.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
    Note

    It is generally not necessary to override this method as it handles all cases in a generic manner.

  109. def nextRefId(): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId

    Returns the next unused time stamp.

    Returns the next unused time stamp.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  110. final def notify(): Unit
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @native()
  111. final def notifyAll(): Unit
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @native()
  112. final def nullRefId: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#RefId
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  113. def origin(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Iterable[ValueOrigin]

    Returns the origin(s) of the given value if the information is available.

    Returns the origin(s) of the given value if the information is available.

    returns

    The source(s) of the given value if the information is available. Whether the information is available depends on the concrete domains. This trait only defines a general contract how to get access to a value's origin (I.e., the origin of the instruction which created the respective value.) By default this method returns an empty Iterable.

    Definition Classes
    Origin
  114. def properties(pc: PC, propertyToString: (AnyRef) ⇒ String = (v) ⇒ v.toString): Option[String]

    Returns a string representation of the properties associated with the instruction with the respective program counter.

    Returns a string representation of the properties associated with the instruction with the respective program counter.

    Associating properties with an instruction and maintaining those properties is, however, at the sole responsibility of the Domain.

    This method is predefined to facilitate the development of support tools and is not used by the abstract interpretation framework.

    Domains that define (additional) properties should (abstract) override this method and should return a textual representation of the property.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  115. def providesOriginInformationFor(ct: ComputationalType): Boolean

    Implementers are expected to "abstract override" this method to make it possible to stack several domain implementations which provide origin information.

    Implementers are expected to "abstract override" this method to make it possible to stack several domain implementations which provide origin information.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesOrigin
  116. def refAreEqual(pc: PC, v1: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, v2: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Answer

    Returns Yes if both DomainReferenceValues definitively identify the same object at runtime.

    Returns Yes if both DomainReferenceValues definitively identify the same object at runtime.

    Using this domain, it is in general not possible to determine that two values are definitively not reference equal unless they are type incompatible.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  117. def refAreNotEqual(pc: PC, value1: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, value2: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Answer

    Compares the given values for reference inequality.

    Compares the given values for reference inequality. Returns No if both values point to the same instance and returns Yes if both objects are known not to point to the same instance. The latter is, e.g., trivially the case when both values have a different concrete type. Otherwise Unknown is returned.

    If both values are representing the null value the org.opalj.Answer is Yes.

    value1

    A value of computational type reference.

    value2

    A value of computational type reference.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  118. def refEstablishAreEqual(pc: PC, value1: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, value2: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Called by OPAL when two values were compared for reference equality and we are going to analyze the branch where the comparison succeeded.

    Called by OPAL when two values were compared for reference equality and we are going to analyze the branch where the comparison succeeded.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  119. def refEstablishAreNotEqual(pc: PC, value1: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, value2: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Called by OPAL when two values were compared for reference equality and we are going to analyze the branch where the comparison failed.

    Called by OPAL when two values were compared for reference equality and we are going to analyze the branch where the comparison failed.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  120. def refEstablishIsNonNull(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Refines the "null"ness property (isNull == No) of the given value.

    Refines the "null"ness property (isNull == No) of the given value.

    Calls refineIsNull on the given ReferenceValue and replaces every occurrence on the stack/in a register with the updated value.

    value

    A ReferenceValue that does not represent the value null.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  121. def refEstablishIsNull(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Updates the "null"ness property (isNull == Yes) of the given value.

    Updates the "null"ness property (isNull == Yes) of the given value.

    Calls refineIsNull on the given ReferenceValue and replaces every occurrence on the stack/in a register with the updated value.

    value

    A ReferenceValue.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  122. def refIsNonNull(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Answer

    Returns Yes if given value is never null, Unknown if the values is maybe null and No otherwise.

    Returns Yes if given value is never null, Unknown if the values is maybe null and No otherwise.

    value

    A value of computational type reference.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesDomain
  123. final def refIsNull(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Answer

    Determines the nullness-property of the given value.

    Determines the nullness-property of the given value.

    value

    A value of type ReferenceValue.

    Definition Classes
    TypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  124. def refSetUpperTypeBoundOfTopOperand(pc: PC, bound: ReferenceType, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Called by the abstract interpreter when the type bound of the top most stack value needs to be refined.

    Called by the abstract interpreter when the type bound of the top most stack value needs to be refined. This method is only called by the abstract interpreter iff an immediately preceding subtype query (typeOf(value) <: bound) returned Unknown. This method must not be ignored – w.r.t. refining the top-most stack value; it is e.g., used by org.opalj.br.instructions.CHECKCAST instructions.

    A domain that is able to identify aliases can use this information to propagate the information to the other aliases.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  125. def refTopOperandIsNull(pc: PC, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)

    Sets the is null property of the top-most stack value to Yes.

    Sets the is null property of the top-most stack value to Yes. This method is called by the framework when the top-most operand stack value has to be null, but a previous isNull check returned Unknown. E.g., after a org.opalj.br.instructions.CHECKCAST that fails unless the value is "null".

    This method can be ignored; i.e., the return value can be (operands,locals). However, a domain that is able to identify aliases can use this information to propagate the information to the other aliases.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesReferenceValuesDomain
  126. def refineIsNull(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, isNull: Answer, operands: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, locals: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals): ((DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Operands, (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#Locals)
    Attributes
    protected[this]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  127. def saload(pc: PC, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayLoadResult
  128. def sastore(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, index: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue, arrayref: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ArrayStoreResult
  129. def summarize(pc: PC, values: Iterable[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue]): (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue

    Creates a summary of the given domain values by summarizing and joining the given values.

    Creates a summary of the given domain values by summarizing and joining the given values. For the precise details regarding the calculation of a summary see Value.summarize(...).

    pc

    The program counter that will be used for the summary value if a new value is returned that abstracts over/summarizes the given values.

    values

    An Iterable over one or more values.

    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
    Note

    The current algorithm is generic and should satisfy most needs, but it is not very efficient. However, it should be easy to tailor it for a specific domain/domain values, if need be.

  130. final def synchronized[T0](arg0: ⇒ T0): T0
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  131. final def throws(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue): ThrowsException[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#ExceptionValue]
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesFactory
  132. def toJavaObject(pc: PC, value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): Option[AnyRef]

    Converts – if possible – a given DomainValue to a Java object that is appropriately initialized.

    Converts – if possible – a given DomainValue to a Java object that is appropriately initialized.

    Implementation

    Every domain that supports the creation of a Java object's based on a domain value is expected to implement this method and to test if it can create a precise representation of the given value. If not, the implementation has to delegate the responsibility to the super method to creat an abstract representation.

    abstract override def toJavaObject(value : DomainValue): Option[Object] = {
     if(value...)
         // create and return Java object
     else
         super.toJavaObject(value)
    }
    returns

    Some(Object) is returned if it was possible to create a compatible corresponding Java object; otherwise None is returned. Default: None unless the value is null. In the latter case Some(null) is returned.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValuesTypeLevelReferenceValuesAsJavaObject
    Note

    This operation is generally only possible if the domain value maintains enough state information to completely initialize the Java object.

  133. def toString(): String
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  134. def typeOfValue(value: (DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainValue): TypeInformation

    Returns the type(type bounds) of the given value.

    Returns the type(type bounds) of the given value.

    In general a single value can have multiple type bounds which depend on the control flow. However, all types that the value represents must belong to the same computational type category. I.e., it is possible that the value either has the type "NullPointerException or IllegalArgumentException", but it will never have – at the same time – the (Java) types int and long. Furthermore, it is possible that the returned type(s) is(are) only an upper bound of the real type unless the type is a primitive type.

    This default implementation always returns org.opalj.ai.UnknownType.

    Implementing typeOfValue

    This method is typically not implemented by a single Domain trait/object, but is instead implemented collaboratively by all domains that implement the semantics of certain values. To achieve that, other Domain traits that implement a concrete domain's semantics have to abstract override this method and only return the value's type if the domain knows anything about the type. If a method that overrides this method has no knowledge about the given value, it should delegate this call to its super method.

    Example

    trait FloatValues extends Domain[...] {
      ...
        abstract override def typeOfValue(value: DomainValue): TypesAnswer =
        value match {
          case r: FloatValue ⇒ IsFloatValue
          case _             ⇒ super.typeOfValue(value)
        }
    }
    Definition Classes
    ValuesDomain
  135. def upperTypeBound(theValues: UIDSet[(DefaultReferenceValuesBinding.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue]): UIDSet[_ <: ReferenceType]

    Calculates the most specific common upper type bound of the upper type bounds of all values.

    Calculates the most specific common upper type bound of the upper type bounds of all values. NullValues are ignored.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  136. final def wait(): Unit
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  137. final def wait(arg0: Long, arg1: Int): Unit
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  138. final def wait(arg0: Long): Unit
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @native() @throws( ... )
  139. implicit object DomainSingleOriginReferenceValueOrdering extends Ordering[(ReferenceValues.this)#DomainSingleOriginReferenceValue]

    Defines a total order on reference values with a single origin by subtracting both origins.

    Defines a total order on reference values with a single origin by subtracting both origins.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  140. object MultipleReferenceValues
    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues
  141. object RefId

    Extractor for reference ids.

    Extractor for reference ids.

    Definition Classes
    ReferenceValues

Inherited from DefaultExceptionsFactory

Inherited from ReferenceValues

Inherited from Origin

Inherited from TypeLevelReferenceValues

Inherited from AsJavaObject

Inherited from GeneralizedArrayHandling

Inherited from ReferenceValuesDomain

Inherited from ReferenceValuesFactory

Inherited from ExceptionsFactory

Inherited from DefaultDomainValueBinding

Inherited from ValuesDomain

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any

Ungrouped